CCNA Security Lab B: Configuring a Remote Access VPN Server and Client

CCNA Security Lab B: Configuring a Remote Access VPN Server and Client

Topology

ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-top

IP Addressing Table

Device Interface              IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway Switch Port
R1 FA0/1                      192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A S1 FA0/5
S0/0/0 (DCE)        10.1.1.1 255.255.255.252 N/A N/A
R2 S0/0/0                    10.1.1.2 255.255.255.252 N/A N/A
S0/0/1 (DCE)        10.2.2.2 255.255.255.252 N/A N/A
R3 FA0/1                    192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0 N/A S3 FA0/5
S0/0/1                  10.2.2.1 255.255.255.252 N/A N/A
PC-A NIC                      192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1 S1 FA0/6
PC-C NIC                      192.168.3.3 255.255.255.0 192.168.3.1 S3 FA0/18

Objectives
Part 1: Basic Router Configuration

  • Configure host names, interface IP addresses, and access passwords.
  • Configure static routing.

Part 2: Configuring a Remote Access VPN

  • Configure a zone-based firewall (ZBF) on R3 using SDM.
  • Configure Router R3 to support Cisco Easy VPN Server using SDM.
  • Configure the Cisco VPN Client on PC-A and connect to R3.
  • Verify the configuration.
  • Test VPN functionality.

Background
VPNs can provide a secure method of transmitting data over a public network, such as the Internet. A common VPN implementation is used for remote access to a corporate office from a telecommuter location such as a small office or home office (SOHO).

In this lab, you build a multi-router network and configure the routers and hosts. You configure a remote access IPsec VPN between a client computer and a simulated corporate network. You start by using SDM to configure a zoned-based firewall (ZBF) to prevent connections from outside the corporate network. You also use SDM to configure Cisco Easy VPN Server on the corporate gateway router. Next, you configure the Cisco VPN Client on a host and connect to the corporate network through a simulated ISP router.

The Cisco VPN Client allows organizations to establish end-to-end, encrypted (IPsec) VPN tunnels for secure connectivity for mobile employees or teleworkers. It supports Cisco Easy VPN, which allows the client to receive security policies upon a VPN tunnel connection from the central site VPN device (Cisco Easy VPN Server), minimizing configuration requirements at the remote location. Easy VPN is a scalable solution for remote access deployments for which it is impractical to individually configure policies for multiple remote PCs.

Router R1 represents a remote site, and R3 represents the corporate headquarters. Host PC-A simulates an employee connecting from home or a small office over the Internet. Router R2 simulates an Internet ISP router and acts as a passthrough with no knowledge of the VPN connection running through it.

Note: The router commands and output in this lab are from a Cisco 1841 with Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T (Advanced IP image). Other routers and Cisco IOS versions can be used. See the Router Interface Summary table at the end of the lab to determine which interface identifiers to use based on the equipment in the lab. Depending on the router model and Cisco IOS version, the commands available and output produced might vary from what is shown in this lab.

Note: Make sure that the routers and the switches have been erased and have no startup configurations.

Instructor Note: Instructions for erasing switches and routers are provided in the Lab Manual, located on Academy Connection in the Tools section.

Required Resources

  • 3 routers with Cisco 1841 with Cisco IOS Release 12.4(20)T1 or comparable (2 routers with SDM 2.5 installed)
  • 2 switches (Cisco 2960 or comparable)
  • PC-A – Windows XP or Vista (with Cisco VPN Client)
  • PC-C (Windows XP or Vista)
  • Serial and Ethernet cables as shown in the topology
  • Rollover cables to configure the routers via the console

Instructor Notes:

  • Although switches are shown in the topology, students can omit the switches and use crossover cables between the PCs and routers R1 and R3.
  • The version of the Cisco VPN Client used in this lab is 4.8.02.0010 for use with Windows XP. You must have a valid CCO account and service contract to download the file.
  • The running configs for all three routers are found at the end of the lab.

Part 1: Basic Router Configuration

In Part 1, you set up the network topology and configure basic settings, such as the interface IP addresses and static routing. Perform the steps on the routers as indicated.

Step 1: Cable the network as shown in the topology.
Attach the devices shown in the topology diagram, and cable as necessary.

Step 2: Configure basic settings for all routers.
a. Configure host names as shown in the topology.
b. Configure the physical interface IP addresses as shown in the IP addressing table.
c. Configure a clock rate for the routers with a DCE serial cable attached to their serial interface.

d. Disable DNS lookup to prevent the router from attempting to translate incorrectly entered commands as though they were host names.

Step 3: Configure static default routes on R1 and R3.
Configure a static default route from R1 to R2 and from R3 to R2.

Step 4: Configure static routes on R2.

Step 5: Configure PC host IP settings.
Configure a static IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway for PC-A and PC-C, as shown in the IP addressing table.

Step 6: Verify connectivity between PC-A and R3.

From PC-A, ping the R3 S0/0/1 interface at IP address 10.2.2.1.
PC-A:\>ping 10.2.2.1

Are the results successful?
Yes. If the pings are not successful, troubleshoot the basic device configurations before continuing.

Step 7: Configure a minimum password length.

Note: Passwords in this lab are set to a minimum of 10 characters, but are relatively simple for the benefit of performing the lab. More complex passwords are recommended in a production network. Use the security passwords command to set a minimum password length of 10 characters.

Step 8: Configure the enable secret password and console and vty lines.
a. Configure the enable secret password cisco12345 on R1.

b. Configure a console password and enable login for router R1. For additional security, the exectimeout command causes the line to log out after 5 minutes of inactivity. The logging synchronous command prevents console messages from interrupting command entry.

Note: To avoid repetitive logins during this lab, the exec-timeout can be set to 0 0, which prevents it from expiring. However, this is not considered a good security practice.

c. Configure the password on the vty lines for router R1.

d. Repeat these configurations on R2 and R3.

Step 9: Encrypt clear text passwords.

a. Use the service password-encryption command to encrypt the console, aux, and vty passwords.

b. Issue the show run command. Can you read the console, aux, and vty passwords? Why or why not?
No, the passwords are now encrypted

c. Repeat this configuration on R2 and R3.

Step 10: Configure a login warning banner on routers R1 and R3.
Configure a warning to unauthorized users with a message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner.

Step 11: Save the basic running configuration for all three routers.
Save the running configuration to the startup configuration from the privileged EXEC prompt.

Part 2: Configuring a Remote Access VPN

In Part 2 of this lab, you configure a firewall and a remote access IPsec VPN. R3 is configured as a VPN server using SDM, and PC-A is configured as a Cisco VPN Client.

Task 1: Prepare R3 for SDM Access

Step 1: Configure HTTP router access and a AAA user prior to starting SDM.
a. Enable the HTTP server on R3.

Note: For added security, you can enable the HTTP secure server on R3 using the ip http secureserver command. The HTTP server and the HTTP secure server are disabled by default.

b. Create an admin01 account on R3 with privilege level 15 and a password of admin01pass for use with AAA.

Step 2: Access SDM and set command delivery preferences.
a. Run the SDM application or open a browser on PC-C. Start SDM by entering the R3 Fa0/1 IP address 192.168.3.1 in the address field.

b. Log in with no username and the enable secret password cisco12345.

c. In the Authentication Required dialog box, enter cisco12345 in the Password field and click OK.

d. If the IOS IPS Login dialog box appears, enter the enable secret password cisco12345.

e. Select Edit > Preferences to allow you to preview the commands before sending them to the router. In the User Preferences window, check the Preview commands before delivering to router check box and click OK.

Task 2: Configure a ZBF Firewall on R3

Step 1: Use the SDM Firewall wizard to configure a zone-based firewall (ZBF) on R3.
a. Click the Configure button at the top of the SDM screen, and then click Firewall and ACL.
ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-1

b. Select Basic Firewall and click the Launch the selected task button. On the Basic Firewall Configuration wizard screen, click Next.

c. Check the Inside (trusted) check box for FastEthernet0/1 and the Outside (untrusted) check box for Serial0/0/1. Click Next. Click OK when the SDM launch warning for Serial0/0/1 is displayed.

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d. In the next window, select Low Security for the security level and click Next.

e. In the Summary window, click Finish.

f. Click Deliver to send the commands to the router. Click OK in the Commands Delivery Status window. Click OK on the Information window. You are returned to the Edit Firewall Policy tab as shown below.

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Step 2: Verify firewall functionality.
a. From PC-C, ping the R2 interface S0/0/1 at IP address 10.2.2.2. C:\>ping 10.2.2.2

Are the pings successful? Why or why not?
Yes, ICMP echo replies are allowed by the sdm-permiticmpreply policy.

b. From external router R2, ping PC-C at IP address 192.168.3.3

Task 3: Use the SDM VPN Wizard to Configure the Easy VPN Server

Step 1: Launch the Easy VPN Server wizard and configure AAA services.
a. Click the Configure button at the top of the SDM home screen. Click the VPN task button to view the VPN configuration page.

b. Select Easy VPN Server from the main VPN window, and then click Launch Easy VPN Server Wizard.
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c. The Easy VPN Server wizard checks the router configuration to see if AAA is enabled. If AAA is not enabled, the Enable AAA window displays. AAA must be enabled on the router before the Easy VPN Server configuration starts. Click Yes to continue with the configuration.

d. When prompted to deliver the configuration to the router, click Deliver.

e. In the Command Delivery Status window, click OK. When the message “AAA has been successfully enabled on the router” displays, click OK.

f. When returned to the Easy VPN Server wizard window, click Next.

g. Now that AAA is enabled, you can start the Easy VPN Server wizard by clicking the Launch Easy VPN Server Wizard button. Read through the descriptions of the tasks that the wizard guides you through.
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How does the client receive the IPsec policies? They are centrally managed and are pushed to the client by the server.

How does the Easy VPN remote server configuration differ from the site-to-site?
Both configure IKE polices and IPsec translations. The remote access server configures a virtual template interface, authentication, group policy lookup, user authentication, among others.

 

h. Click Next when you are finished answering the above questions.

Step 2: Configure the virtual tunnel interface and authentication.
a. Select the interface on which the client connections terminate. Click the Unnumbered to radio button and select the Serial0/0/1 interface from the pull-down menu.

b. Select Pre-shared Keys for the authentication type and click Next to continue.

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Step 3: Select an IKE proposal.
a. In the IKE Proposals window, the default IKE proposal is used for R3.
ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-7

What is the encryption method used with the default IKE policy? 3DES

What is the hash algorithm used to ensure that the keys have not been tampered with? SHA_1

b. Click Next to accept the default IKE policy.

Note: Configurations on both sides of the tunnel must match exactly. The Cisco VPN Client automatically selects the proper configuration for itself. Therefore, an IKE configuration is not necessary on the client PC.

Step 4: Select the transform set.
a. In the Transform Set window, the default SDM transform set is used. What ESP encryption method is used with the default transform set? ESP_3DES
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b. Click Next to accept the default transform set.

Step 5: Specify group authorization and group policy lookup.
a. In the Group Authorization and Group Policy Lookup window, select the Local option.
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b. Click Next to create a new AAA method list for group policy lookup that uses the local router database.

Step 6: Configure user authentication (XAuth).

a. In the User Authentication (XAuth) window, you can specify to store user information on an external server, such as a RADIUS server or a local database, or both. Select the Enable User Authentication check box and accept the default of Local Only.
ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-10
Where does the router look for valid user accounts and passwords to authenticate remote VPN users when they attempt to log in?
The local router user database. If the username is not locally defined on R3, the user cannot log in.

b. Click the Add User Credentials button. In the User Accounts window, you can view currently defined users or add new users.

What is the name of the user currently defined and what is the user privilege level?
admin01, privilege level 15.

How was this user defined?
During the initial Cisco IOS CLI configuration

c. In the User Accounts window, click the Add button to add another user. Enter the username VPNuser1 with a password of VPNuser1pass. Select the check box for encrypting the password using the MD5 hash algorithm. Leave the privilege level at 1.

What is the range of privilege level that can be set for a user? 0 through 15
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d. Click OK to accept the VPNuser1 entries, and then click OK to close the User Accounts window.

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e. In the User Authentication (XAuth) window, click Next to continue.

Step 7: Specify group authorization and user group policies.

a. In the Group Authorization and User Group Policies window, you must create at least one group policy for the VPN server.
ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-13

b. Click Add to create a group policy.

c. In the Add Group Policy window, enter VPN-Access as the name of this group. Enter a new preshared key of cisco12345 and then re-enter it.

d. Leave the Pool Information box checked and enter a starting address of 192.168.3.100, an ending address of 192.168.3.150, and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.

e. Enter 50 for the Maximum Connections Allowed.

f. Click OK to accept the entries.

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g. An SDM warning message displays indicating that the IP addresses in the pool and the IP address of the FastEthernet0/1 interface are in the same subnet. Click Yes to continue.

h. When you return to the Group Authorization window, check the Configure Idle Timer check box and enter one hour (1 ). This disconnects idle users if there is no activity for one hour and allows others to connect. Click Next to continue.
ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-15

i. When the Cisco Tunneling Control Protocol (cTCP) window displays, do not enable cTCP. Click Next to continue.

j. When the Easy VPN Server Passthrough Configuration window displays, make sure that the Action Modify check box is checked. This option allows SDM to modify the firewall on S0/0/1 to allow IPsec VPN traffic to reach the internal LAN. Click OK to continue.
ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-16

Step 8: Review the configuration summary and deliver the commands.
a. Scroll through the commands that SDM will send to the router. Do not check the check box to test the VPN. Click Finish.
b. When prompted to deliver the configuration to the router, click Deliver.
ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-17

c. In the Command Delivery Status window, click OK. How many commands are delivered? 100 with SDM 2.5

Step 9: Test the VPN Server.
a. You are returned to the main VPN window with the Edit Easy VPN Server tab selected. Click the Test VPN Server button in the lower right corner of the screen.

b. In the VPN Troubleshooting window, click the Start button.

Your screen should look similar to the one below. Click OK to close the information window. Click Close to exit the VPN Troubleshooting window.

ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-18

Task 4: Use the Cisco VPN Client to Test the Remote Access VPN

Step 1: (Optional) Install the Cisco VPN client.
If the Cisco VPN Client software on host PC-A is not installed, install it now. If you do not have the Cisco VPN Client software, contact your instructor.

Instructor Notes: This lab uses Cisco VPN Client 4.8.02.001 0 for Windows XP. You must have a valid CCO account and service contract to download the file. Extract the .exe or .zip file and begin the installation. Accept the defaults as prompted. Click Finish when the VPN Client has been successfully installed. Click Yes to restart the computer for the configuration changes to take effect.

ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-19

Step 2: Configure PC-A as a VPN client to access the R1 VPN server.
a. Start the Cisco VPN Client and select Connection Entries > New, or click the New icon with the red plus sign (+) on it.
ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-20

b. Enter the following information to define the new connection entry. Click Save when you are finished.

Note: The group authentication name and password are case-sensitive and must match the ones created on the VPN Server.

ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-21

Step 3: Test access from PC-A without a VPN connection.
In the previous step, you created a VPN connection entry on the VPN client computer PC-A but have not activated it, so the VPN tunnel is not yet up. Open a command prompt on PC-A and ping the PC-C IP address at 192.168.3.3 on the R3 LAN. Are the pings successful? Why or why not?
No. The pings fail because PC-A still has its configured IP address (192.168.1.3) and is blocked by the firewall. PC-A cannot access the internal PC-C host in the 192.168.3.0/24 network without an address from the VPN access group associated with the
192.168.3.100–150 address pool.

Step 4: Establish a VPN connection and log in.
a. Select the newly created connection VPN-R3 and click the Connect icon. You can also double-click the connection entry.
ccna-security-lab-b-configuring-remote-access-vpn-server-client-22

b. Enter the previously created username VPNuser1 in the VPN Client User Authentication dialog box and enter the password VPNuser1pass. Click OK to continue. The VPN Client window minimizes to a lock icon in the tools tray of the taskbar. When the lock is closed, the VPN tunnel is up. When it is open, the VPN connection is down.

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Task 5: Verify the VPN Tunnel Between the Client, Server, and Internal Network

Step 1: Open the VPN Client icon.
a. Double-click the VPN lock icon to expand the VPN Client window. What does it say about the connection status at the top of the window?
Status: Connected

b. From the PC-A command line, issue the ipconfig command.

What is the IP address of the first Local Area Connection? 192.168.1.3

What is the IP address of Local Area Connection 2? 192.168.3.100

Step 2: Close the VPN connection and reopen it.
a. Click the Disconnect icon in the VPN Client window to close the VPN-R3 connection.

b. Click the Connect icon and log in again as VPNuser1. What is the IP address of Local Area Connection 2 now? 192.168.3.101

Note: Each time you disconnect and reconnect to the VPN server, you receive a new IP address until the limit is reached.

Step 3: Check the tunnel statistics.
a. Select Status > Statistics. Click the Tunnel Details tab.
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b. What is the current address obtained from the R3 VPN server and what is the range of addresses that can be assigned? Answers will vary. Currently the IP address is 192.168.3.101, but it can range from 192.168.3.100 through 192.168.3.150. The pool of addresses was defined in Task 2. What is the VPN server address? 10.2.2.1 How many packets have been encrypted? Answers will vary What is the encryption method? 168-bit 3-DES What is the authentication method? HMAC-SHA1

c. Leave the VPN Client Statistics window open.

Step 4: Test access from the client PC-A using the VPN connection.
a. With the VPN connection from computer PC-A to router R3 activated, open a command prompt on PC-A and ping the PC-C IP address at 192.168.3.3 on the R3 LAN. Are the pings successful?
Yes. The pings are successful. PC-A has an IP address (192.168.3.101 in this case) that was assigned by the VPN server. PC-A can access the internal PC-C host on network 192.168.3.0/24 because both hosts are on the same subnet.

b. How many packets have now been encrypted? Answers will vary, but the number should increase by four

Step 5: Check the Cisco IOS message on R3 when the tunnel is created.
Open the console connection for R3 and locate the message displayed indicating that the virtual interface came up when the VPN Client connection was made.

What is the name of the interface on R3 that is activated for the VPN? Interface Virtual-Access2

Step 6: Verify the VPN connection information for PC-A.
a. From the PC-A command prompt, issue the ipconfig /all command to see the networ connections.

b. What is the configuration for the first Local Area Connection?

c. What is the configuration for Local Area Connection 2?

Step 7: Telnet from PC-A to R3.

a. From the PC-A command prompt, telnet to R3 at the Fa0/1 IP address 192.168.3.1. Log in as admin01 with a password of admin01pass. What is the router command prompt and why is this?
Because user admin was defined with privilege level of 15 (the highest). The prompt defaults to privileged EXEC mode (R3#).

b. Issue the show run command to view the various commands generated by SDM to configure the VPN Server.

c. Issue the show users command to see connections to router R3. What connections are present? The console connection and the vty connection from PC-A by user admin01.

d. Close the Telnet connection using the quit or exit command.

Task 6: Reflection

Why is VPN a good option for remote users?
Answers will vary but should include: It is a flexible technology that is widely supported by equipment vendors. Service is commonly available from ISPs. A VPN server can be set up independent of the ISP if desired. VPN provides easy and secure access to internal LAN resources for remote workers and business partners. Any authorized person with an Internet connection can access internal resources as if they were on the local LAN

Router Interface Summary Table

Router Interface Summary

Router Model Ethernet Interface
#1
Ethernet Interface
#2
Serial Interface
#1
Serial Interface
#2
1700 Fast Ethernet 0
(Fa0)
Fast Ethernet 1
(Fa1)
Serial 0 (S0) Serial 0/0/1
(S0/0/1)
1800 Fast Ethernet 0/0
(Fa0/0)
Fast Ethernet 0/1
(Fa0/1)
Serial 0/0/0
(S0/0/0)
Serial 0/0/1
(S0/0/1)
2600 Fast Ethernet 0/0
(Fa0/0)
Fast Ethernet 0/1
(Fa0/1)
Serial 0/0 (S0/0) Serial 0/1 (S0/1)
2800 Fast Ethernet 0/0
(Fa0/0)
Fast Ethernet 0/1
(Fa0/1)
Serial 0/0/0
(S0/0/0)
Serial 0/0/1
(S0/0/1)
Note: To find out how the router is configured, look at the interfaces to identify the type of router and how many interfaces the router has. Rather than list all combinations of configurations for each router class, this table includes identifiers for the possible combinations of Ethernet and serial interfaces in the device. The table does not include any other type of interface, even though a specific router might contain one. For example, for an ISDN BRI interface, the string in parenthesis is the legal abbreviation that can be used in Cisco IOS commands to represent the interface.

Router Configs

Router R1

Router R3

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