In Computer Science, inclusive/exclusive doesn’t apply to algorithms, but to a number range (more specifically, to the endpoint of the range):

1 through 10 (inclusive)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 through 10 (exclusive)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

In mathematics, the 2 ranges above would be:

[1, 10]

[1, 10)

You can remember it easily:

Inclusive – Including the last number

Exclusive – Excluding the last number

The following function prints the powers of 2 from 1 through n (inclusive).

This means that the function will compute 2^i where i = 1, 2, …, n, in other words, i can have values from 1 up to and including the value n. i.e n is Included in Inclusive

If, on the other hand, your book had said:

The following function prints the powers of 2 from 1 through n (exclusive).

This would mean that i = 1, 2, …, n-1, i.e. i can take values up to n-1, but not including, n, which means i = n-1 is the highest value it could have.i.e n is excluded in exclusive.