The exponential function is e^x where e is a mathematical constant called Euler’s number, approximately 2.718281. This value has a close mathematical relationship with pi and the slope of the curve e^x is equal to its value at every point. np.exp() calculates e^x for each value of x in your input array.

It calculates ex for each x in your list where e is Euler’s number (approximately 2.718). In other words, np.exp(range(5)) is similar to [math.e**x for x in range(5)].