GRES & NSR Configuration Quick Summary

This article provides information on Graceful Routing Engine Switchover (GRES) and Nonstop Active Routing (NSR) support for Junos Subscriber Management functionalities.

How should an MX operating in a Subscriber Management environment be configured to maintain High Availability (HA)?

What is needed to perform a Unified In Service Software Upgrade (Unified ISSU)?

What role does Periodic Packet Management play in HA?

To configure an MX for HA, two protocols need to be configured, Graceful Routing Engine Switchover and Nonstop Active Routing.

Graceful Routing Engine Switchover (GRES) enables a routing platform with redundant Routing Engines (REs) to continue forwarding packets even if one RE fails. GRES preserves interface and kernel information so that traffic forwarding is not interrupted. However, GRES does not preserve control plane information so neighboring routers detect that the router has experienced a restart and react to the event in a manner prescribed by individual routing protocol specifications. To preserve routing during a switchover, GRES must be combined with either Graceful Restart protocol extensions or Nonstop Active Routing (NSR).

NSR enables a routing platform with redundant REs to switch from the primary to the backup without alerting peer nodes that a change has occurred. NSR uses the same infrastructure as GRES to preserve interface and kernel information. However, NSR also preserves routing information and protocol sessions by running the routing protocol process (rpd) on both Routing Engines. In addition, NSR preserves TCP connections maintained in the kernel. In order to use NSR, GRES must also be configured.

With GRES and NSR, the router can be upgraded via a Unified ISSU. Unified ISSU enables the system to be upgraded to a new release of Junos OS with no disruption in the control plane and minimal disruption of traffic. Unified ISSU is only supported on a system with dual REs.

This table shows the Protocol and Local Databases that run in Junos:

GRES & NSR Configuration Quick Summary-1

An important element to maintaining state for HA is Periodic Packet Management (PPM), referenced by ‘*PPM above’. PPM is responsible for periodic transmission and receipt of packets on behalf of its various client processes, such as Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD). By default, PPM handles time-sensitive periodic processing and performs the tasks of gathering statistics and sending process-specific packets. Distributing PPM (D-PPM) to the Packet Forwarding Engine allows the system to run time sensitive protocols like BFD on the Packet Forwarding Engine.

The following is a list of the types of sessions supported by PPM:

  • BFD single-hop session for both IPv4 and IPv6, including EBGP, ISIS, and OSPF.
  • Connectivity fault management (CFM) sessions.
  • Link fault management (LFM) sessions.
  • Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) interface sessions.
  • Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) sessions.

These protocol sessions are not supported by PPM:

  • BFD over an aggregated interface for IPv4, IPv6, RSTP, MSTP, and LACP.
  • BFD over an IPv6 interface that does not have the global IPv6 address (or only has a link local address).
  • Multihop BFD with IBGP, static routes, EBGP multihop, and MPLS LSP.
  • BFD over an MPLS path using OAM.

With GRES, the Routing Information Base (RIB) is relearned and refreshed onto the newly active Master RE if there is a switch. How individual protocols and their daemons react to a GRES event differs. Most Subscriber Management daemons will have their state preserved, while most Routing Protocols will restart. The following table shows a breakdown of the GRES support:

GRES & NSR Configuration Quick Summary-2

Conversely, with NSR the RIB is actively mirrored to the backup RE. Thus, there is no need for data to be learned again and protocols are not restarted. Here is the same protocol breakout referenced above for NSR:

GRES & NSR Configuration Quick Summary-3

To run NSR, the following configuration parameters are recommended to be set:

Setting the network services knob to enhanced-ip forces the chassis to power on only Trio cards. The effect is that the chassis supports the greater scaling that Trio cards can support. The areas of improved scaling include routes, statistics, and filters. Without this parameter set, subscriber scaling is significantly reduced.

Periodic-refresh is disabled to change the default behavior for statistics collection. Before Broadband Edge (BBE), statistics were constantly collected by Junos. This consumes CPU cycles that are needed by BBE for call setup. So, an option to only collect statistics on demand was needed. Disabling periodic refresh makes the change in statistics collection to on demand. There is no negative impact to statistics accuracy or rate when set this way.

For a subscriber network configured with either NSR or GRES, configure the router to wait 180 seconds (3 minutes) before removing (flushing) static or dynamic access routes and access-internal routes from the forwarding table after a switch has taken place.

Synchronize commit on both Routing Engines.

Enables graceful switchover.

This sets the time to wait after a switchover before starting PPM timers.

Enable nonstop routing.

This command sets the NSR phantom route hold time.

This sets the time to hold inherited routes from the FIB.

Note: Phantom routes are used by protocols on the standby Routing Daemon that runs in NSR mode on the Backup RE to park Target Specific Information data on a prefix.

This setting initiates transmission of LACP packets.

This sets the interval for periodic transmission of LACP packets. Fast indicates packets are transmitted every second.

Note: Do NOT set LACP centralized. Distributed is the default.

Shown below is a summary of the parameters discussed above that have been proven to function for NSR at High Subscriber Management Scale:

To verify that NSR is active and working correctly, the following commands can be used on the two REs in the system:

GRES & NSR Configuration Quick Summary-4

Sample Output for NSR Verification Commands:

 

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